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St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum)

15.02.21 10 min. read

At a glance: St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum)

    1. What is St. John's wort?
    2. applications of St. John's wort
    3. The ingredients of St. John's wort
    4. The mechanism of action of St. John's wort
    5. John's wort against premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
    6. St. John's wort for depression
    7. St. John's wort to soothe
    8. St. John's wort - when does the effect of a code?
    9. St. John's wort: side effects, contraindications, interactions
    10. dose of St. John's wort
    11. Why is St. John's wort component of PMS cream "The Hug"?
    12. sources

We are all bad at it: In the dark winter months when everything is going wrong somehow, stress at work drives us or the people we consistently seem unfriendly. There are so gray-in-gray days when one would prefer to move in the morning right back the covers over her head. Many women have this oppressive feeling especially in the days before the days. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is often also linked to depressed mood. These cramps in the lower abdomen and inner unrest can come. The good thing is: against this malaise can do something. St. John's wort should against some of these complaints represent a well-tolerated option.

What is St. John's Wort?

St. John's wort is one of the Hypericaceae (hard hay), a family with more than 400 different species. It grows in the temperate climate of Europe, North America and Asia. Alone in our part of nine different types can be in close proximity.

to early autumn the plant occurs from the summer of bright yellow in appearance: St. John's wort or "Holed" (Hypericum perforatum) as well as means. The name is, according to legend, therefore, come because the devil himself was angered by the healing power so that he pierced the leaves. And so once the herb against obsession and the Demon defense was used. Keeping the leaves against the light, the lanzettartigen leaves appear because of their reddish glands with resins and essential oils actually perforated [1]. More likely is that the St. John's got its name from the Festival St. John on June 24 because the plant begins at this point with the flowering period. St. John's Wort is considered the plant that collects the power of the sun in order bad moods to drive [2].

The real St. John

Medical is significant but only the real (Tüpfel-) St. John's wort. The above ground herb growing and the flowers are used, among other things against melancholy since antiquity as a medicinal plant. usually the bright red flowers of the oil is used for external application. In the heyday of St. John's wort has its highest content of active ingredients [3]. Even in 2002 St. John's wort was that with most widely used herbal remedy for depression in the United States.

Application areas of St. John's Wort

St. John's wort is assessed differently by different instances. All have in common is that its main effect seems to be a mood-enhancing and soothing effect.

St. John's wort for internal use

After European Medicines Agency (EMA) can hypericum for the treatment of:

  • skin problems and minor wounds
  • mental stress and mood swings (mild to moderate depression [11; S2]) and
  • disorders of the gastrointestinal tract

are used [4].

The Commission E (scientific expert committee for herbal medicines the Federal Institute for drugs and medical Devices, BfArM) sets as areas for internal use include:

  • psycho vegetative disorders
  • mild to moderate depressive moods
  • anxiety and restlessness
  • exhaustion
  • sleep disorders associated with depression
  • menopausal
  • migraine [2; 5].

St. John's wort for external use

But St. John unfolds its healing power not only by internal application. An external application is u. A. in:

  • tension and muscle pain with various causes (myalgia)
  • cuts and abrasions
  • bruises
  • sprains
  • dislocations
  • nerve pain and
  • rheumatic complaints

The heat generating effect of the herb is generally intended analgesic effect [2; 5].

The ingredients of St. John's Wort

plants are full of pharmacologically important substances that may support each other in an extract of the whole plant in its effect and reinforce [8]. In St. John's Wort contains, inter alia, the following active substances:

  • Hypericine
  • Hyperforin
  • bitters
  • flavonoids
  • biflavonoids
  • tannins / tannins
  • essential oils (such butenol)
  • xanthones
  • different amino acids [4; 14].

From what substance or mixture of the antidepressant effect starts, has been clarified yet not exhaustive.

The mechanism of action of St. John's Wort

But how exactly now acts St. John's wort? The effectiveness of St. John's wort appears by the complex interaction of several ingredients to come into existence [8, 10]. Every single fabric again seems to be working its own mechanism of action.

John's wort against premenstrual syndrome (PMS)

How can help John's wort against PMS? St. John's Wort produces its calming effect mainly in psychiatric rich tissue, such as brain and muscles. Therefore, it is not to brighten only the mood, but can also alleviate accompanying symptoms, such as pain, cramps or anxiety and stress.

An example of this is the bitter substances in St. John's. They can provide for recreation, energy and the strengthening of organs. They also act on the nervous system. They can stimulate the same time and relax, cheer and calm, act against anxiety and depression [7].

St. John's wort for depression

Several studies have shown that St. John's wort can act as a whole extract with continuous intake to mild and moderate depression [S1] The hypericin contained therein seems example, a strong binding affinity to receptors have, which are numerous in the brain areas of emotions [S5].

Suspected is that St. John's wort (monoamine oxidases MAO as) messengers (neurotransmitters) accumulates on the suspension of certain groups of enzymes in the nervous system.

how it works: The messengers carrying information from one nerve to the next train on the so-called synaptic cleft. According to their binding to the receptors receiver (synapses) they are degraded by enzymes. Now if St. John's wort inhibits these degradative enzymes, the messengers accumulate and can more pulses in the subsequent nerve cell to send.

In these neurotransmitters is these hormones:

  • serotonin ( "happiness and fear free hormone")
  • dopamine ( "reward hormone")
  • norepinephrine ( "Drive hormone") [S6].

The mode of action is so similar to that of synthetic antidepressants which inhibit the reuptake of serotonin.

At the same time St. John's wort should be able to increase the density of receptors on the nerves that are activated by serotonin, [13]. In animal experiments could thereby reducing depressive behavior are observed [9]. The effect was comparable to that of a synthetic antidepressant [11].

St. John's wort to soothe

The calming effect of St. John's wort is due to a similar mechanism, such as its antidepressant effect. Some substances seem to inhibit namely, a second group of enzymes catechol Omethyltransferasen (COMT), which increases the concentration of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and L-glutamine in the central nervous system. GABA, for example, reduces the activity / excitation of the nervous system, so that the body is relaxed and at ease. L-glutamine as a precursor of GABA in the brain itself acts as an antidepressant, antianxiety and sleep-promoting [8, 12; S7].

These other mechanisms for the relaxing effect of St. John's wort to be responsible. The hop acid (butenol) in St. John applies for example also reassuring [6]. Other ingredients of St. John's wort bind to so-called Corticoliberinrezeptoren (CRF receptors) in the central nervous system and reduce the level of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). This anxiety can be modulated [10] and the perception of stress are dampened. Also binding of hypericum ingredients to benzodiazepine receptors may contribute to sedative effect [10]. Finally, St. John's wort to increase the distribution of the sleep hormone melatonin.

St. John's - when occurs the effect?

Does St. John's wort immediately after taking this medicine? No, unfortunately not. The bad news is that St. John's wort, must be so taken as thousands of other herbal supplements only regularly before the first effects are felt. In general, the within two to four weeks to happen. First effects can already be felt after about eight days [11; 5]. have accumulated until enough neurotransmitter receptors before, just can pass some time [12].


St. John's wort: side effects, contraindications, interactions

St. John's wort is generally well tolerated. Of a total of 12,000 patients just three percent reported ever side effects [10]. In studies, it has similar side effects as a placebo (placebo) [S1; S3]. However hypericins acting photodynamically, that is, that can be the skin at high doses of St. John's wort photosensitive [11]. So when taking St. John's wort, you should expose yourself to risk no sunburn not too long strong sunlight. In addition, known as side effects:

  • gastrointestinal complaints
  • an allergic skin reaction
  • fatigue [11].

When should not take St. John's wort?

Whether St. John's wort for pregnant and lactating women is safe, has not yet been clarified. In animal experiments, at least it has caused birth defects. Nursing mothers can under St. John's wort:

  • colic
  • drowsiness or
  • sensitivities

develop [2].

People with:

  • heart valves and heart wall aneurysms
  • fresh pulmonary
  • deep vein thrombosis
  • thrombophilia

should in no case more than 40 mg hyperforin per day taking [5]!

interactions of St. John's Wort

Critical are the interactions that St. John's wort - may cause with parallel medication taken - when taken orally. This is because that the herb can activate the metabolism [S4]. In high doses (from about 900 mg total extract) may interact with the following medications:

  • antibiotic
  • medicine to treat asthma
  • anticoagulants (anticoagulants)
  • antidepressants
  • heart medication / -heterosides
  • HIV drugs (protease inhibitors)
  • immune-suppressing drugs
  • cancer drugs
  • statins to lower cholesterol

Although it had so far not confirmed by studies, St. John's wort is suspected to reduce the effect of hormonal contraceptives. If you are unsure whether St. John's wort has any of your drugs have an impact, questioning myself from taking your doctor [2; 11].

dose of St. John's Wort

What dose is appropriate for you depends on how much the symptoms are, you want to treat it and how high the preparation is. Recommended daily are 900 mg to 1800 mg hypericum extract or a dose of 300 to 600 mg one to three times / day. The maximum dose of 1800 mg of extract should not be exceeded. Young people under 18 are advised to keep before taking consultation with the doctor [11].

With mild depressive episodes usually a dose ranges from 300 to 600 mg of St. John's wort dry extract per day out. Ideally, you take it as a therapy and especially regularly three to six months [5].

Why is St. John's wort component of PMS cream "The Hug"?

pain and psyche are linked inextricably. Fast a vicious cycle of pain and mental health problems, which in turn may increase the pain develops. Therefore, painful periods require a conscious break for the self. Our period Cream The Hug can to contribute decisively to resolve complex problems. It consists of a mixture pleasant soothing organic extracts.

are irritated If there is pain in the days before the days when the uterus to contract, nerves near the tense muscles. A massage with warm St. John's wort may provide for the relaxation of cramping, nerve-rich uterine muscles and also the feeling of inner restlessness and sadness calm. the relaxing effect is supported by chaste tree, incense and hemp extract CBD, with their essential oils and warming forces counteract the imbalances in the body. The special flavor of the cream contributes to holistic well-being. The gentle massaging the cream to the abdomen and a conscious breathing in and out physical and psychological stresses can fall away from you. So represents The Hug meditative mindfulness, conscious in-itself-sensing and self-care. All contribute to calming and pain relief.

Sources:

[1] Raimann, Christian and other, basics of traditional European naturopathy TEN, 01.03.2012 in Bacopa Verlag, 1st Edition, ISBN-13: 978-3902735218

[2] St. John's Wort, in National Center of complementary and integrative health retrieved on 11/02/2021 from https://www.nccih.nih.gov/health/st-johns- word

[3] Bühring, Ursel, textbook medicinal plants: Principles - Applications - therapy, 18/11/2020 in Haug Verlag, 5th Edition, ISBN-13: 978-3132432741

[4] Hyperici herba, accessed 26/10/2006 in European Medicines Agency, on 11.02.2021 of https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/medicines/herbal/hyperici -herba

[5] Quite Chrischta, Medicinal Plant of the Year 2015: St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum), 12.01.2015 in Switzerland Z Ganzheitsmed 2015; 27: 27-29 retrieved, on 11/02/2021 of https: // www. karger.com/Article/Pdf/371604

[6] Bühring (Author), Ursel, Girsch, Michaela, practice herbalism, September 7, 2016 Haug-Verlag, 1st Edition, ISBN-13: 978-3132205918

[7] Gruss, Steffen, bitter - miracle of natural materials Institute for Health Prevention, accessed on 02.11.2021 of https://fachportal-gesundheit.de/bitterstoffe-wunderstoffe-der-natur / # Bitterstoffrezeptoren_in_der_Haut

[8] driver, and Kristina Mueller, Walter E., Effects on transmitter uptake and Their cellular and molecular basis, in St. John's Wort and its Active Principles in Depression and Anxiety , pages 31-46, Springer Verlag, accessed on 13.02.2021 of https://link.springer.com /chapter/10.1007/3-7643-7338-5_4

[9] Schaffner, W., Müller, WE, M. Rolli, C. Shepherd, U. Haefner: Pharmacopsychiatry 30 (Suppl.), 102-107 (1997)

[10] Schaffner, W., Dr. Kreuter, MH, Hypericum perforatum L. St. John's word, Institute for Pharmaceutical Biology, University of Basel retrieved on 14/02/2021 from https://www.askic.co.jp/business /raw/list/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/hypericum-perforatum2.pdf

[11] COMMUNITY HERBAL MONOGRAPH ON Hypericum perforatum L., HERBA (WELL-ESTABLISHED MEDICINAL USE), November 12, 2009 in European Medicines Agency, accessed on 11/02. 2021 of https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/documents/herbal-monograph/final-community-herbal-monograph-hypericum -perforatum liter herba-well-established-medicinal-use_en.pdf

[12] Kaul, R., St. John's wort - mechanisms of antide, German pharmacists newspaper: pharmacology, accessed on 14.02.2021 of https: // www .Deutsche-pharmacist-zeitung.de / daz-az / 2000 / daz-7-2000 / uid-6278

[13] Devil Mayer, R., Gleitz, J., Effects of long-term administration of hypericum extracts on the affinity and density of the central serotonergic 5 -HT1 A and 5-HT2 receptors A, 01.09.1997 in Pharmacopsychiatry, 30 Suppl 2: 113-116, accessed on 14.02.2021 of http://europepmc.org/article/MED/9342771

in uptodate [14] MD Saper, Robert B., Clinical use of St. John's wort, 11/17/2019, accessed on 02.11.2021 of < / span> https://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-use-of-st-johns-wort?search=: 53 & amp;; usage_type=default & amp display_rank=1"> https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27589952/

[S2] Linde, Klaus et. Al., St John's wort for major depression, 08.10.2008, Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2008 (4): CD000448, accessed on 11.02.2021 of https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18843608/

[S3] billets, Lars, Linde, Klaus, Adverse Effects of St John's Wort: A Systematic Review

December 2004 The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 65 (11): 1470-9 retrieved on 11/02/2021 from https : //www.researchgate.net/publication/8172056_Adverse_Effects_of_St_John's_Wort_A_Systematic_Review

[S4] Mills, Edward et. Al., Interaction of St John's wort with Conventional drugs: systematic review of clinical trials, July 3, 2004 in BMJ; 329 (7456): 27-30, accessed on 11.02.2021 of https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15231618/ code

[S5] Bennett, D. A. et. al, Neuropharmacology of St. John's Wort (Hypericum), November 1998 in Ann Pharmacother; 32 (11):. accessed 1201-8, on 12.02.2021 of https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9825087/

[S6] Singer, A. et. Al., Hyperforin, a major constituent of antidepressant St. John's Wort, Inhibits serotonin uptake by elevating free intracellular Na + 1, September 1999 J. Pharmacol Exp Ther; 290 (3): 1363-8, accessed on 11.02.2021 of < / span> https: //pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih .gov / 10454515 /

[S7] Suzuki, O. et. al, Inhibition of monoamine oxidase by hypericin June 1984 in Planta Med; 50 (3):. 272-4, accessed on 12.02.2021 of https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6484033/ < / p>

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